FMECA is a method to identify and analyse the possible failure modes in a system. It also identifies the effects of these failures on the system and how to prevent them.
The MECA, in simple terms, is a method for identifying, prioritising, and eliminating system failures (at the process or design level). FMECA differs from FMECA Design or FMECA Process in that the first refers to the product or system, while the second focuses on problems arising from maintenance, manufacture, or operation.
FMECA was originally called FMEA (or AMFE) at first. C is a new parameter that is being used more often. It indicates the severity or seriousness of various failures and allows you to prioritize them.
What is FMECA?
FMEA, which stands for Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA), is an enhanced version of FMEA which incorporates criticality analyses into the entire process. FMEA, in its basic form, is qualitative and only examines "what-if" scenarios. We add the criticality component to FMEA, which allows us to perform quantitative measurements. This allows us to assign a criticality rating for identified failure modes.
This allows us to estimate the risk level accurately and can help us prioritize corrective actions. This is a sample of the FMECA example table.
Types of FMECA
The following are the most common applications of FMECA:
- Design FMECA (DFMECA).
- Process FMECA (PFMECA).
- Machinery and Equipment FMECA (EFMECA)
Reasons You Should Perform Failure Mode, Effects & Criticality Analysis (FMECA)
FMECA's (Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis) methodology are designed to increase knowledge about risk and prevent failure. These are the tangible benefits of FMECA:
Design and Development Benefits
- Higher reliability.
- Better quality.
- Higher safety margins.
- Re-design and reduced development time.
- More efficient Control Plans.
- Requirements for Validation and Verification Testing have been Improved.
- Preventive and predictive optimization optimized.
- During product development, reliability growth analysis is performed.
- Reduced waste and other non-value addition operations (Lean Operation and Manufacturing).
- Recognize failure modes early (when they're less expensive to address).
- Low warranty costs.
- Customer satisfaction leads to increased sales.
FMECA Basic Analysis Procedure
These are the basic steps to perform a Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis.
- Form the team.
- Set the ground rules.
- Collect and examine relevant information.
- Identify the item or process to be analysed.
- Identify the functions, failures, effects, causes, and controls.
- Assess the risk.
- Prioritize and assign corrective steps.
- Corrective actions are taken, and the risk is re-evaluated.
- As appropriate, distribute, review and update the results.
Risk Evaluation Methods
A typical FMEA includes assessing the risk associated with the potential problems identified during the analysis. Next, we will discuss the two most popular methods, Risk Priority Numbers (or Criticality Analysis)
Risk Priority Numbers
- Rate the severity of each failure effect.
- Rate the likelihood of occurrence for every failure cause.
- Rate the likelihood of prior detection of each cause of failure is rated (i.e., The likelihood of the problem being detected before it reaches the customer or end-user.
Calculate the RPN using the product of three ratings:
RPN = Severity, Occurrence, Detection
The RPN can be used to analyse and prioritize issues for corrective actions.
There are two types: qualitative and quantitative criticality analysis. The analysis team must be qualified to use quantitative criticality analysis.
- Define the reliability or unreliability for each item at a given operating time.
- Determine the percentage of items that are unreliable and how they can be attributed to each failure mode.
- Rate the probability or severity loss that will result from each potential mode.
- Calculate the criticality of each failure mode by using the product of these three factors.
Mode Criticism = Mode Ratio of Unreliability x Item Unreliability x Probability of Loss.
- Be sure to calculate the criticality of each item by adding the criticalities for every failure mode for each item.
SUM of Mode Criticisms = Item Criticality
- The analysis team must use the qualitative criticality method to assess risk and prioritize corrective actions.
- Assess the severity of potential failure effects.
- Rate the probability of occurrence of each failure mode has a probability of occurring.
- Compare failure modes using a Criticality Matrix. This matrix identifies severity and occurrence on each axis.
FMECA analysis is a tool that can be used in many ways to meet many purposes. It can help improve the design of products and processes. This will result in increased reliability, higher quality, safety, customer satisfaction, and lower costs. It can be utilized to optimize maintenance programs for repairable systems or to subsidize to control programs or other quality assurance procedures. This tool provides information about failure modes and corrective actions that can be used to assist in future troubleshooting efforts and a training resource for engineers. An FMECA is also required to meet safety and quality standards.